Posts Tagged ‘Diener & Diener’

x4: windows, glass panels

To analyze  the joints and junctures of the facade of the Forum 3 building by Diener & Diener I marked the key elements in section and plan. (source)

Worth mentioning is that the carrying structure starts on the ground floor at the inside of the weather barrier and switches on the first level to the outside. Where the bearing columns are on the outside the loads of the horizontal beams have to go through the facade . This demands a joint that is resistant, waterproof and thermally insulated. A reduction of columns the ground level demands larger beam in the ceiling. These larger beams however don’t have to perforate the weather barrier thanks to the shifting of the windows.
The metal bars that hold the glass panels are suspended from the top of the steel structure and invisibly anchored in the concrete foundation below the ground. Metal clamps fixed at the edge of each slab hold them in place.

In the plan a problem due to the corner geometry appears: The vertical metal bars of the exterior facade are not equidistant anymore. Other than that the building corner is very simple and reduced.

Piraeus facade detail drawing:

The perforated facade layer does not have to be load carrying because it is directly attached to the skeleton. It can be cast in insulating concrete which is less resistant but more insulating thermally than normal concrete. The glass panels are attached at big vertical bars. These pars are attached to the concrete facade from time to time, for example through balconies. The floor of the baconies as wella s the railings are made in glass to maintain a high degree of transparency and lightness.

Up to now, the rhythms of the perforated facade and the glass panel screen were completely independent. If the balconies take a structural role, these two rhythms have to be related somehow to guarantee a big enough number of joints.

x2_random facade pattern

This second exercice is a direct continuation of the previous one.

The facade made out of random positioned glas pannels is only a exterior layer that loosly wraps the building. The interior facade and actual water barrier is recessed by approximately 2.5 meters and is entirely glazed. Projecting slabs, linking the exterior “screen” with the interior facade, become balconies. The building structure is a metal frame construction with large oval cased columns and a grid of horizontal beams.  The columns are on the inside of the interior facade on the northern facade, on the southern facade however, they are located between the 2 facade layers perforating the balconies.

image source

In the parametric model, all facade elements have been converted into volumes. In addition I introduced randomized colors for the glas panels. Also I added a function to the GET PANELS script that avoids endless loops and the program crashes related to it.
The interior facade is parametricaly designed as well. All geametry is first created (mainly by extrusion of plane surfaces) and then multiply copied to it’s position according to the dimension and rhythm of the facade. The rhythms interior facade and the exterior screen are directly linked: The rhythm of the interior windows matches the rhythm of the metal bars holding up the colored panels and there’s a colum every seventh window.

Screenshots of the parametric model:

Overvier of the grashopper canvas:

The core of the gh code: The creation of the randomized pattern

The two functions written in VB.NET:

Detail plan and section extracted from the parametric model:

Influence on the Piraeus project

The doubling of the facade creates a space in between with specific qualities:  An exterior space, exposed to fresh air, but at the same time partly  protected from wind and strong sunlight. Such spaces might be interesting for the Piraeus Tower: Loggias with view on the port and the city, where the air can circulate freely due to the gaps between the enveloping glas pannels. An ideal place to spend some hours in the shade waiting for your ship to embark.
Starting from these loggias where the glas panels are brought on out of functional need, they might spread over the facade of the tower like lichen over a stone.

x1_random facade pattern

Diener & Diener with Helmut Federle, Forum 3, Novartis Campus, Basel

The facade consists of two regular rows of thin metal bars. Glas panels in varying shapes and sizes and colors are attached to these bars. The panels are stacked in three layers: Behind, inbetweeen and in front of the two rows of metal bars. Altough the positioning of the panels seems to be random, there are no touching or overlapping panels within the same layer.

The major simplification I made for the parametric model is the reduction to one single panel format, that can be choosen freely though, with the minimal width being the distance between two bars. Increasing the with of the panel makes it grow symmetrically in both directions.

- distance between bars
- number of bars
- length of bars
- distance between layers
- height of panels
- lateral overlap (in % of distance between bars)
- minimal vertical distance between 2 panels
- number of panels per layer
- locations of cutting planes for plan and section

GH screenshot

Composite drawing I, narrow panels

Composite drawing II, large panels

The repartition of the panels seems to be completely random. But that’s not entirely the case. First of all, the so called random values generated by the VB.Net rnd() command are only pseudo random, that means that they are part of a sequence determined by a set of initial values. Then, on the other hand, the definition of one panel reduces the possible locations of the panels to come. The more panels are defined, the smaller the range of  possible coordinates gets. In that way, the simple rule of avoiding overlapping panels somehow channels the initially random process.

Simplyfied flowchart

source image I
source image II

ghx file

random facade pattern WIP II

GH screenshot

GH flowchart code of the GET PANELS function

Random positioning of panels within a series of cables.
The code written in allows avoiding overlapping panels.

ghx file here

random facade pattern WIP

Random positioning of one single panel within a series of cables.

Next step would be to multiply the number of panels (the difficulty is in avoiding overlapping panels).

GH code here

image source